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1955 Lancia Florida (Pininfarina)

Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 2-door
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 2-door
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 2-door
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 2-door
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 4-door hardtop
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 4-door hardtop
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 4-door hardtop
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 - 4-door hardtop
The four-door 1955 Lancia Florida hardtop sedan debuted in September 1955.
The four-door 1955 Lancia Florida hardtop sedan debuted in September 1955.
The four-door Lancia Florida used center-opening, pillarless construction.
The four-door Lancia Florida used center-opening, pillarless construction.
A restored left-hand drive 1955 Lancia Florida hardtop sedan. Shown at Turin in the spring of 1956, it was sold to U.S. car importer Kjell Kvale, then stored for some 15 years.
A restored left-hand drive 1955 Lancia Florida hardtop sedan. Shown at Turin in the spring of 1956, it was sold to U.S. car importer Kjell Kvale, then stored for some 15 years.
The design of the 1955 Lancia Florida was worked on by just a handful of draftsmen and modelers.
The design of the 1955 Lancia Florida was worked on by just a handful of draftsmen and modelers.
Pinin Farina built three Lancia Florida hardtop sedans as a follow-up to the initial hardtop coupe. Two had right-hand drive (but not this one).
Pinin Farina built three Lancia Florida hardtop sedans as a follow-up to the initial hardtop coupe. Two had right-hand drive (but not this one).
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955
Иллюстрации: it.wikipedia.org; auto.howstuffworks.com
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1955 Pininfarina Lancia Aurelia B55/B56 Florida (2-door/4-door Berlina)
Without a doubt the most famous and influential special on an Aurelia chassis was the Florida berlina by Pininfarina. It appeared in 1955 and four of them have been made, one 2-door and three 4-door sedans.

The Florida berlina had a radical squarish design with a full width grill and decent tail fins. The spacious cabin featured large glass areas and a wrap-around panoramic windshield. Like the standard Aurelia the 4-door Florida special had pillarless, opposed opening doors. All bodies were painted in a tasteful 2-tone color scheme.

The modern pontoon-like looks of the Florida impressed and intrigued customers and car manufacturers alike. When Lancia came under new management in 1956 it was decided that the successor of the Aurelia should be based on the style and shape of the Florida show cars; this became the Lancia Flaminia berlina which was introduced in 1957. But it didn’t stop there because other manufacturers contacted Pininfarina for similar sedan designs. This way models like the "Farina" saloons of BMC (Morris Oxford V, Austin A 55 Cambridge Mk II, Riley 4/68, Wolseley 15/60 and MG Magnette Mk III) of 1959, the Fiat 1800/2100/2300 berlinas of 1959 (a Mario Boano design under Pininfarina supervision) and the Peugeot 404 of 1960 came on the market. The new style of the Florida influenced European car design for decades to come and established Pininfarina as one of the most important styling studios.


In the 1950s, Italy’s design maestro, Pinin Farina, changed the shape of automotive architecture while drumming up new business for his expanding carrozzeria. Here’s the story of the dramatic show car -- the 1955 Lancia Florida -- that touched off a worldwide styling revolution with an influence you can still see today.

The Lancia Florida is now some 50 years distant, so its colossal significance may not be fully appreciated by today’s style-conscious observer. Yet few design studies offer such a clear-cut example of a truly new form.

There was nothing like the Florida in Pinin Farina’s earlier work, and the maestro certainly didn’t copy it from any of his rivals in Turin, London, Milan, or Detroit.

When he sprang his surprise on the world at the Turin Salone dell’Automobile in the spring of 1955, everyone was unprepared. And no one could grasp at that moment how much the Florida would influence the art of car design in years to come.

If that sounds like an exaggeration, it’s not. With the Florida, Farina bid farewell to "monolithic" shapes and said hello to a new principle: body development by symmetrical juxtaposition of curved panels.

Look at it this way: If older cars were sculpted, as if hewn from a lump of clay, the Florida was just the opposite. It was built like a house of cards, each card preformed to a certain aesthetic concept. The starting point was not a solid object but merely a surface.

The Florida was remarkably clean for its time. The major theme was form, with a near-total absence of decoration. Horizontal emphasis was provided by the beltline, which picked up from the front fenders and stretched into the high rear fenders, blending with the backwards sweep of the C-post.

Further strengthening the horizontal motif was a full-length sheet-metal crease just above the wheel cutouts. A hardtop coupe built in steel, the Lancia Florida also featured a wraparound windshield and "dogleg" A-posts, prompted no doubt by the contemporary U.S. styling fad originated by General Motors.

The grille was not new, being merely a variation on the flattened oval that Farina was using on so many Ferraris. Headlamps were housed within the grille frame, with smaller auxiliary lamps recessed into the front fender tips.

In proportions, the Lancia Florida was perfect for its time. The profile was long and sleek, and rear deck length was sufficient for full visual balance with the hood, thereby giving extra emphasis to the car’s static 50/50 unladen weight distribution.

The shallow greenhouse and big wheels may look dated to modern eyes. However, those wheels -- shod with Michelin X 165-400 tires -- seemed smaller than expected for a 104.3-inch-wheelbase car in 1955, and the absence of fixed B-posts counteracted the low roof, giving a definite airiness to the interior. The prototype was originally finished in two-tone paint, with white on the roof and decklid and dark blue everywhere else.

It didn’t take long for Pinin Farina to develop a four-door version of the 1955 Lancia Florida design. It was ready in September 1955, still on the same short-wheelbase platform.

The windshield base was moved forward and the hood correspondingly shortened to make room for the rear doors. Headlamps were relocated from the grille to the fenders, with the parking lights directly below. A Ferrari-like air scoop appeared on the hood, and the A-posts were straightened to vertical, still with a wrapped windshield.

Like the coupe, the four-door Florida was pillarless. Doors were center-opening, and Farina came up with a novel arrangement to make up for the lack of B-posts. When closed, the back doors locked into the fronts, and all doors also latched on the sills.

Frameless sideglass precluded any roof-mounted door attachment points. Lancia had some misgivings about this arrangement, so the Flaminia emerged as a pillared sedan with full window frames and conventional front-hinged rear doors.

The Flaminia was built on a 113-inch wheelbase. Power was supplied by the largest 2.5-liter (152-cubic-inch) version of the Aurelia V-6, detuned to 102 horsepower. Naturally it inherited the Aurelia’s front-drive transaxle, thus keeping tooling costs within strict limits.

The de Dion rear suspension was retained, but Fessia departed wildly from Lancia practice by going to a new front suspension design with upper and lower A-arms and coil springs inclined at about 20 degrees from vertical.

Several major manufacturers had noticed the fundamental styling change represented by the original Lancia Florida and began talking to Pinin Farina about doing something similar. What he did was sell a scaled-down version of the basic Flaminia design intended to accept engines of 1.5-2.0 liters (91-121 cid).

It appeared in quick succession at British Motor Corporation in 1958 (Wolseley 15/60, Austin A-55 Cambridge, MG Magnette Mark III, Morris Oxford Series IV, and Riley 4/68), at Fiat in 1959 (1800 and 2100), and at Peugeot in 1960 (for the 404). The French and Italian cars stayed with big horizontal grilles. Austin and Morris used less daring ones, while the Riley and Wolseley had narrower, more traditional, vertical-bar treatments.

Pronounced rear fender "fins" appeared on the British cars, which also had horizontal chrome moldings running back from headlamp center level and curved downward in the rear door area. More modest blades graced the Peugeot, while the Fiats’ flanks were straight.

The Florida was already influential, but Pinin Farina had still further plans for this design.


Показ шоу-кара Florida на основе Lancia в 1955-м стал для компании Фарины знаковым. Его серийная 4-дверная версия в 1958 году триумфально вышла в свет под именем Lancia Flaminia -- что интересно, сам Фарина использовал ее как автомобиль на каждый день. Что особо интересно -- Flaminia решила судьбу нескольких принадлежавших автомобильным компаниям дизайн-бюро. Проанализировав эту машину, кое-кто из боссов пришел к выводу о творческой несостоятельности собственных дизайн-служб и дал команду прикрыть их и начать работать с Фариной. Пожалуй, наиболее верным клиентом Фарины в те годы стала British Motor Corporation -- сотрудничество началось в 1958 году с весьма лаконичного Austin A40 и продолжилось другими моделями, например, такими как 1100.
По материалам: www.ritzsite.net; auto.howstuffworks.com; «МАЛЫШ НА МИЛЛИОН» ИВАН СУСАРИН, Журнал «Автопилот» Август, 2008 № 08 (173)
Автомобили марки Lancia
1922 Lancia Lambda, 1937 Lancia Aprilia, 1937 Lancia Aprilia Aerodinamica (Pininfarina), 1938 Lancia Aprilia Sport (Zagato), 1938 Lancia Aprilia Villoresi (Zagato), 1949 Lancia Ardea Panoramica (Zagato), 1953 Lancia Aurelia PF200 (Pininfarina), 1954 Lancia Aurelia B24 S (Pininfarina), 1955 Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1957 Lancia Appia GTS (Zagato), 1957 Lancia Florida II (Pininfarina), 1958 Lancia Appia GTE (Zagato), 1958 Lancia Flaminia Sport (Zagato), 1961 Lancia Appia Sport (Zagato), 1963 Lancia Flaminia Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1963 Lancia Flavia Sport (Zagato), 1964 Lancia Flaminia Super Sport (Zagato), 1965 Lancia Fulvia Coupe, 1965 Lancia Fulvia Sport (Zagato), 1967 Lancia Flavia Super Sport (Zagato), 1968 Lancia Fulvia Spider (Zagato), 1969 Lancia Fulvia 1600 Competizione (Ghia), 1969 Lancia Marica (Ghia), 1970 Lancia Stratos Zero (Bertone), 1971 Lancia Dunja (Coggiola), 1971 Lancia Stratos HF (Bertone), 1974 Lancia Mizar (Michelotti), 1976 Lancia Gamma Coupe (Pininfarina), 1978 Lancia Gamma Spider (Pininfarina), 1978 Lancia Megagamma (ItalDesign), 1978 Lancia Sibilo (Bertone), 1980 Lancia Gamma Scala (Pininfarina), 1980 Lancia Medusa (ItalDesign), 1982 Lancia Gamma Olgiata (Pininfarina), 1982 Lancia Orca (ItalDesign), 1987 Lancia Delta HF Integrale, 1988 Lancia HIT (Pininfarina), 1992 Lancia Hyena (Zagato), 1993 Lancia Thema Coupe (Coggiola), 1995 Lancia Kayak (Bertone), 1997 Lancia Ionos (Sbarro), 1998 Lancia Dialogos, 2000 Lancia Nea (I.DE.A), 2002 Lancia Granturismo, 2003 Lancia Fulvia Coupe, 2003 Lancia Granturismo Stilnovo, 2003 Lancia Ypsilon, 2005 Lancia Kandahar (Fioravanti), 2005 Lancia Ypsilon Sport (Zagato), 2006 Lancia Delta HPE, 2006 Lancia Haizea (IED), 2010 Lancia Stratos (Pininfarina)
Разработки студии Pininfarina
1912 Fiat Tipo Zero (Pininfarina), 1937 Lancia Aprilia Aerodinamica (Pininfarina), 1947 Cisitalia 202 (Pininfarina), 1947 Maserati A6 1500 Berlinetta Speciale (Pininfarina), 1951 Packard 2-Door Fastback (Pininfarina), 1953 Lancia Aurelia PF200 (Pininfarina), 1954 Cadillac PF 200 Cabriolet (Pininfarina), 1954 Lancia Aurelia B24 S (Pininfarina), 1954 Maserati A6GCS Berlinetta (Pininfarina), 1955 Ferrari 375 America Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1955 Lancia Florida (Pininfarina), 1955 Pininfarina Nash Special, 1956 Alfa Romeo Super Flow I (Pininfarina), 1956 Alfa Romeo Super Flow II (Pininfarina), 1956 Ferrari 410 Superfast (Pininfarina), 1956 Fiat Multipla Marine (Pininfarina), 1956 Rambler Palm Beach (Pininfarina), 1957 Buick Lido (Pininfarina), 1957 Ferrari 4.9 Superfast (Pininfarina), 1957 Lancia Florida II (Pininfarina), 1958 Buick XP-75 (Pininfarina), 1958 Cadillac Skylight (Pininfarina), 1959 Alfa Romeo Super Flow III (Pininfarina), 1959 Cadillac Starlight (Pininfarina), 1959 Ferrari 250 GT SWB (Pininfarina), 1959 Fiat 2100 Coupe (Pininfarina), 1960 Abarth Monoposto da record (Pininfarina), 1960 Alfa Romeo Super Flow IV (Pininfarina), 1960 Chevrolet Corvair Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1960 Ferrari Superfast II (Pininfarina), 1960 Pininfarina X, 1961 Alfa Romeo Giulietta SS Spider (Pininfarina), 1961 Cadillac PF Jacqueline (Pininfarina), 1961 Fiat 600 Y Aerodinamica (Pininfarina), 1962 Alfa Romeo 2600 Cabriolet Speciale (Pininfarina), 1962 Alfa Romeo Giulietta SS Coupe (Pininfarina), 1962 Austin Healey 3000 (Pininfarina), 1962 Ferrari Superfast III (Pininfarina), 1962 Ferrari Superfast IV (Pininfarina), 1962 Fiat 2300 Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1963 Alfa Romeo 2600 Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1963 Chevrolet Rondine (Pininfarina), 1963 Fiat 2300 Cabriolet Speciale (Pininfarina), 1963 Fiat 2300 S Lausanne (Pininfarina), 1963 Lancia Flaminia Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1963 Pininfarina PF Sigma, 1964 Abarth 1000 Spider (Pininfarina), 1964 Fiat 2300 S Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1964 Mercedes-Benz 230 SL Coupe (Pininfarina), 1965 Abarth 1000 Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1965 Alfa Romeo Giulia 1600 Sport (Pininfarina), 1965 Ferrari Dino Berlinetta Speciale (Pininfarina), 1965 Fiat 2300 S Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1966 Ferrari 365 P Berlinetta Speciale (Pininfarina), 1966 Fiat Dino Speciale Prototipo (Pininfarina), 1967 Ferrari Dino 206 Competizione (Pininfarina), 1967 Ferrari Dino 206/246 GT (Pininfarina), 1967 Fiat Dino Parigi (Pininfarina), 1967 Pininfarina BMC-1800 Berlina-Aerodinamica, 1968 Alfa Romeo P33 Roadster (Pininfarina), 1968 Bentley T1 Coupe Speciale (Pininfarina), 1968 Ferrari 250 P5 (Pininfarina), 1968 Ferrari P6 (Pininfarina), 1968 Fiat Dino Ginevra (Pininfarina), 1968 Pininfarina BLMC 1100, 1969 Abarth 2000 (Pininfarina), 1969 Alfa Romeo P33 Coupe (Pininfarina), 1969 Ferrari 512S Speciale (Pininfarina), 1969 Fiat 128 Teenager (Pininfarina), 1969 Pininfarina Sigma Grand Prix monoposto F1, 1970 Ferrari Modulo (Pininfarina), 1971 Alfa Romeo P33 Cuneo (Pininfarina), 1971 Ferrari Berlinetta Boxer (Pininfarina), 1971 NSU Ro-80 (Pininfarina), 1972 Alfa Romeo Alfetta Spider (Pininfarina), 1973 Autobianchi A 112 Giovani (Pininfarina), 1973 Chevrolet XP-897GT Two-Rotor (Pininfarina), 1974 Ferrari CR 25 (Pininfarina), 1974 Fiat 130 Maremma (Pininfarina), 1975 Alfa Romeo Eagle (Pininfarina), 1975 Fiat 130 Opera (Pininfarina), 1975 Rolls-Royce Camargue (Pininfarina), 1976 Lancia Gamma Coupe (Pininfarina), 1976 Peugeot Peugette (Pininfarina), 1978 Fiat Ecos (Pininfarina), 1978 Jaguar XJ Spider (Pininfarina), 1978 Lancia Gamma Spider (Pininfarina), 1978 Pininfarina Studio CNR, 1980 Ferrari Pinin (Pininfarina), 1980 Lancia Gamma Scala (Pininfarina), 1981 Audi Quartz (Pininfarina), 1982 Lancia Gamma Olgiata (Pininfarina), 1983 Fiat Ritmo Coupe (Pininfarina), 1984 Ferrari 288 GTO (Pininfarina), 1984 Honda HP-X (Pininfarina), 1985 Peugeot Griffe 4 (Pininfarina), 1986 Alfa Romeo Vivace Coupe and Spider (Pininfarina), 1987 Ferrari F40 (Pininfarina), 1988 Lancia HIT (Pininfarina), 1989 Ferrari Mythos (Pininfarina), 1990 Pininfarina CNR E2, 1991 Opel Chronos (Pininfarina), 1992 Fiat Cinquecento pick-up (Pininfarina), 1992 Pininfarina Ethos, 1993 Pininfarina Ethos 2, 1994 Ferrari 512 M (Pininfarina), 1994 Fiat Spunto (Pininfarina), 1994 Pininfarina Ethos 3, 1995 Ferrari F50 (Pininfarina), 1995 Honda Argento Vivo (Pininfarina), 1995 Honda SSM (Pininfarina), 1996 Fiat Sing e Song (Pininfarina), 1996 Pininfarina Eta Beta, 1997 Peugeot 406 Coupe (Pininfarina), 1997 Peugeot Nautilus (Pininfarina), 1998 Alfa Romeo Dardo (Pininfarina), 1998 Peugeot 206 (Pininfarina), 1999 Fiat Wish (Pininfarina), 1999 Pininfarina Metrocubo, 2000 Ferrari Rossa (Pininfarina), 2001 Citroen Osee (Pininfarina), 2001 Ford Start (Pininfarina), 2002 Ferrari Enzo (Pininfarina), 2002 Hafei HF Fantasy (Pininfarina), 2003 Ferrari 612 Scaglietti (Pininfarina), 2003 Maserati Quattroporte (Pininfarina), 2003 Pininfarina Enjoy, 2004 Ferrari Superamerica (Pininfarina), 2004 Pininfarina Double-Face, 2004 Pininfarina Nido, 2005 Chery M14 (Pininfarina), 2005 Maserati Birdcage 75th (Pininfarina), 2006 Ferrari P4-5 (Pininfarina), 2008 Pininfarina B0 (B Zero), 2008 Pininfarina Sintesi, 2008 Rolls-Royce Hyperion (Pininfarina), 2010 Alfa Romeo 2uettottanta (Pininfarina), 2010 Lancia Stratos (Pininfarina), 2010 Pininfarina Nido EV, 2011 DeTomaso Deauville (Pininfarina), 2011 Ferrari FF (Pininfarina), 2012 Pininfarina Cambiano, 2013 BMW Gran Lusso Coupe (Pininfarina), 2013 Pininfarina Sergio
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